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CONTENTS
PREFACE
1. SOME KEY TERMS AND MAIN LAWS
1.1. Properties
1.2. Classifications of Matter
1.2.1. States of Matter
1.2.2. Substances and Mixtures
1.3. Atomic and Molecular Masses
1.4. The Main Laws of Chemistry
1.4.1. Lavoisier: The Law of Conservation of Mass
1.4.2. Proust: The Law of Definite Proportions
1.4.3. Dalton’s Atomic Theory: Law of multiple proportions
1.4.4. Avogadro’s Law
1.4.5. Law of Equivalents
2. ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS
3. ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.1. Subatomic Particles
3.2. Quantum Mechanical Model of an Atom
3.3. Ground and Excited States of an Atom
3.4. Periodic Table
3.5. Electron Configuration: Periodic Relationships
3.6. Periodic Atomic Properties of the Elements
4. CHEMICAL BONDS
4.1. Ionic Bond: Ions
4.2. Covalent Bond: Molecules
4.3. Coordinate Covalent Bond
4.4. Intermolecular Forces of van der Waals Type
4.4.1. Dispersion Forces
4.4.2. Dipole-Dipole Forces
4.5. Hydrogen Bond
5. THERMOCHEMISTRY
5.1. Enthalpy
5.2. Entropy
6. CHEMICAL KINETICS AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
6.1. The Rate of Chemical Reactions
6.2. Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rates
6.3. Catalysis
6.4. Reversible and Irreversible Chemical Reactions
6.5. Chemical Equilibrium
6.6. Altering Equilibrium Conditions: Le Châtelier’s Principle
7. SOLUTIONS AND DISPERSED SYSTEMS
7.1. Types of Solutions
7.2. Solubility
7.3. Energetics of the Dissolution Process
7.4. Dissolution of Solids
7.5. Dissolution of Liquids
7.6. Dissolution of Gases
7.7. Solution Concentration
8. THE NATURE OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
8.1. Solutions of Non-electrolytes
8.1.1. Depression of Solvent Pressure above the Solution
8.1.2. Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation
8.1.3. Osmotic Pressure
8.2. Solutions of Electrolytes
8.2.1. Solution of Strong Electrolytes
8.2.2. Dissociation Constant of Weak Electrolytes
8.3. Dissociation of water
8.4. Indicators
8.5. Buffer Solutions
8.6. Hydrolysis of salts
8.7. Dispersed systems
8.8. Colloidal Solutions
9. HARD WATER AND WATER SOFTENING
9.1. Water Softening
9.1.1. Ion Exchange
9.2. Effect of Water Wastes on Environment
9.3. Wastewater Treatment Plants
9.4. Treatment of Municipal Water Supplies
10. OXIDATION-REDUCTION (REDOX) REACTIONS
10.1. Metals as Reducing Agents
10.2. Possibility for an Oxidation-Reduction Reaction to Take Place
11. ELECTROCHEMISTRY
11.1. Galvanic (Voltaic) Cells
11.2. Cell diagrams
11.3. Standard electrode potentials
11.4. EMF and Free-Energy change
11.5. Effect of Concentration on Electrode Potential
11.5.1. Electrochemical Determination of pH
11.6. Polarisation and Depolarisation of Electrochemical Processes
11.7. Types of Galvanic Cells
11.7.1. Dry-cell
12. CORROSION
12.1. Chemical Corrosion
12.1.1. Chemical corrosion of steel and cast iron
12.2. Electrochemical Corrosion
12.2.1. Types of electrochemical corrosion
12.3. Prevention of Electrochemical Corrosion
13. ELECTROLYSIS
13.1. Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions
13.2. Electrolysis with Active Electrodes
13.3. Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis
14. BATTERIES
14.1. Lead-Acid battery
14.2. Nickel-Cadmium battery
14.3. Fuel cells
15. METALLURGY
15.1. Pyrometallurgy
15.2. Hydrometallurgy
15.3. Alloys
16. METALS AND SEMICONDUCTORS
16.1. Physical Properties of Metals
16.1.1. The Free-Electron Model for Metallic Bonding
16.1.2. Molecular Orbital Model for Metallic Bonding
16.2. Insulators and Semiconductors
16.3. More on Properties of Metals
17. POLYMERS (Macromolecular materials, high-molecular compounds)
17.1. Classification of Polymers
17.2. Physical States of Polymers
17.3. Synthesis of Polymers
17.4. Physical Properties of Polymers
17.5. Polymer Degradation
17.6. Application of Polymers
18. REFERENCES
19. DICTIONARY

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