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Organic Chemistry Laboratory Manual
Contents
General Work and Safety Rules
The Laboratory Work Description Form
Laboratory works
Laboratory Work No 1. Properties of Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Experiments
1. Synthesis of methane and its properties
2. Synthesis of ethylene (ethene) and its properties
3. Synthesis of acethylene (ethyne) and its properties
Questions and exercises
Laboratory Work No 2. Properties of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Experiments
1. Action of aqueous solutions of bromine and potassium permanganate on benzene
2. Action of potassium permanganate aqueous solutions on methylbenzene
3. Bromination of benzene and methylbenzene without a catalyst
4. Bromination of benzene and methylbenzene using a catalyst
5. Sulphonation of methylbenzene
6. Nitrogenation of benzene
7. Naphthalene sublimation
Questions and exercises
Laboratory Work No 3. Properties of Alcohols and Phenols
Experiments
1. Solubility of alcohols
2. Preparation of sodium ethoxide and its hydrolysis
3. Preparation of copper glycolate and glycerate
4. Dehydration of glycerol
5. Reactions of phenols with iron (III) chloride
6. Preparation of sodium phenoxide (phenolate) and its decomposition
7. Reduction properties of 1,4-benzenediol (hydroquinone)
8. Detection of enol group with iron (III) chloride
9. Identification of the presence of phenol
10. Bromination of phenol
Questions and exercises
Laboratory Work No 4. Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
Experiments
1. Oxidation of aldehydes
1.1. Reaction of silver mirror
1.2. Reaction with copper (II) hydroxide
1.3. Oxidation of benzenecarbaldehyde with potassium permanganate
1.4. Oxidation with air oxygen
2. Detection of propan-2-one
3. Reaction of sodium hydrogen sulphite with methanal and propanone
4. Reaction of aldehydes with phenylhydrazine
5. Polymerization of methanal
Questions and exercises
Laboratory Work No 5. Properties of Carboxylic Acids, Fats and Soaps
Experiments
1. Solubility of various carboxylic acids in water
2. Formation of ester
3. Saponification of fats (oils)
4. Separation of free fatty acids
5. Determination of glycerol
6. Properties of fatty acids and soaps
6.1. Preparation of the soluble soap
6.2. Preparation of the nonsoluble soap
6.3. Determination of unsaturated fatty acids
7. Formation of succinic anhydride
Questions and exercises
Laboratory Work No 6. Properties of Mono- and Disaccharides
Experiments
1. Reduction properties of monosaccharides
1.1. The silver mirror test
1.2. Reaction with Fehling’s reagent
2. Preparation of glucose osazone
3. Reactions of lactose and saccharose with Fehling’s reagent
4. Inversion of saccharose (sugar beet sugar)
Questions and exercises
Laboratory Work No 7. Properties of Polysaccharides
Experiments
1. Hydrolysis of cellulose
2. Reaction of starch and iodine
3. Dissolving cellulose in Schweizer’s reagent
4. Nitrification of cellulose
Questions and exercises
Laboratory Work No 8. Properties of Amines
Experiments
1. Determination of the basic properties of amines
2. Formation of the salts of benzenamine (aniline)
3. Acetylation of benzenamine (aniline)
4. Bromination of benzenamine (aniline)
5. Diazotization of benzenamine (aniline)
6. Synthesis of azo dyes
Questions and exercises
Laboratory Work No 9. Properties of Protein Substances
Experiments
1. Burette reaction (protein identification reaction)
2. Xanthoproteic reaction
3. Precipitation of proteins by salts of heavy metals
4. Coagulation of proteins by heat
5. Salting out of proteins
Questions and exercises
General Purification Methods of Organic Compounds
Laboratory Work No 10
Recrystallization
Important information
Experimental procedure of recrystallization
Questions
Laboratory Work No 11
Distillation
Important
Experiment: distillation of a mixture
Questions
General Extraction Methods
Solvent extraction
Steam distillation
References

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